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Il ruolo protettivo della masticazione durante lo sviluppo cognitivo e nelle malattie neurodegenerative


Academic year 2020/2021

Prof.ssa Maria Grazia Piancino (Titolare del corso)
Degree course
Ciclo XXXV
Teaching period
Da definire
Course Seminario

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

  • To understand the features of mastication in humans
  • To learn the recent research results showing the histological changes of the hippocampus in absence of mastication
  • To learn the behavioural changes in animals
  • To understand the influence of mastication on memory and cognition in humans

Course delivery

Frontal lesson and discussion with the participants


Learning assessment methods

Oral interview



  1. Introduction
  2. The features of mastication in humans: the pattern and the muscular activation and coordination
  3. The histological results in animals with and without mastication in the site of memory and cognition i.e. the hippocampus
  4. The behavioural results in young and old animals
  5. The clinical studies during development and the elderly during cognitive decline.
  6. Conclusions

Suggested readings and bibliography


  1. Piancino MG, Kyrkanides Stephanos. “Understanding masticatory function in unilateral crossbites.” Wiley US 2016
  2. Cerutti-Kopplin D, Feine J, Padilha DM, de Souza RF, Ahmadi M, Rompre P, et al. Tooth Loss Increases the Risk of Diminished Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JDR Clin Trans Res. 2016; 1(1):10-;9. PMID: 30931697
  3. Fukushima-Nakayama Y, Ono T, Hayashi M, Inoue M, Wake H, Ono T, et al. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function. J Dent Res. 2017; 96(9):1058-;66. 0022034517708771 PMID: 28621563
  4. Piancino MG, Cordero-Ricardo M, Cannavale R, Vallelonga T, Garagiola U, Merlo A. Improvement of masticatory kinematic parameters after correction of unilateral posterior crossbite: Reasons for func- tional retention. Angle Orthod. 2017; 87(6):871-;7. PMID: 28771046
  5. Tada A, Miura H. Association between mastication and cognitive status: A systematic review. Arch Ger- ontol Geriatr. 2017; 70:44-;53. PMID: 28042986
  6. Morquette P, Lavoie R, Fhima MD, Lamoureux X, Verdier D, Kolta A. Generation of the masticatory central pattern and its modulation by sensory feedback. Prog Neurobiol. 2012; 96(3):340-;55. https:// PMID: 22342735
  7. Piancino MG, Bracco P, Vallelonga T, Merlo A, Farina D. Effect of bolus hardness on the chewing pat- tern and activation of masticatory muscles in subjects with normal dental occlusion. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008; 18(6):931-;7. PMID: 17616401
  8. Ono Y, Yamamoto T, Kubo KY, Onozuka M. Occlusion and brain function: mastication as a prevention of cognitive dysfunction. J Oral Rehabil. 2010; 37(8):624-;40. 02079.x PMID: 20236235
  9. Chen HY, Iinuma M, Onozuka M, Kubo KY. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function. International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 12(6):502-;9. 11911 PMID: 26078711
  10. Lin CS. Revisiting the link between cognitive decline and masticatory dysfunction. BMC Geriatr. 2018; 18(1):5. PMID: 29304748
  11. Akazawa Y, Kitamura T, Fujihara Y, Yoshimura Y, Mitome M, Hasegawa T. Forced mastication increases survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2013; 31(2):307-;14. PMID: 23254518
  12. Frota de Almeida MN, de Siqueira Mendes FDCC, Gurgel Fel ́ıcio AP, Falsoni M, Ferreira de Andrade ML, Bento-Torres J, et al. Spatial memory decline after masticatory deprivation and aging is associated with altered laminar distribution of CA1 astrocytes. BMC Neuroscience. 2012; 13(1).
  13. Niijima-Yaoita F, Tsuchiya M, Saito H, Nagasawa Y, Murai S, Arai Y, et al. Influence of a long-term pow- dered diet on the social interaction test and dopaminergic systems in mice. Neurochem Int. 2013; 63 (4):309-;15. PMID: 23871718
  14. Nose-Ishibashi K, Watahiki J, Yamada K, Maekawa M, Watanabe A, Yamamoto G, et al. Soft-diet feed- ing after weaning affects behavior in mice: Potential increase in vulnerability to mental disorders. Neuro- science. 2014; 263:257-;68. PMID: 24444829
  15. Okihara H, Ito Ji, Kokai S, Ishida T, Hiranuma M, Kato C, et al. Liquid diet induces memory impairment accompanied by a decreased number of hippocampal neurons in mice. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2014; 92(8):1010-;7. PMID: 24687840
  16. Patten AR, Moller DJ, Graham J, Gil-Mohapel J, Christie BR. Liquid diets reduce cell proliferation but not neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus. 2013; 254:173-;84. 1016/j.neuroscience.2013.09.024 PMID: 24060822
  17. Utsugi C, Miyazono S, Osada K, Sasajima H, Noguchi T, Matsuda M, et al. Hard-diet feeding recovers neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and olfactory functions of mice impaired by soft-diet feeding. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e97309. PMID: 24817277
  18. Takeda Y, Oue H, Okada S, Kawano A, Koretake K, Michikawa M, et al. Molar loss and powder diet leads to memory deficit and modifies the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus of adult mice. Bmc Neuroscience. 2016;17. PMID: 27113933
  19. Kurata C, Ichihashi Y, Onishi M, Iinuma M, Tamura Y, Mori D, et al. Early toothless condition sup- presses cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of SAMP8 mice. Pediatric Dental Journal. 2012; 22(2):110-;6.
  20. Katayama T , Mori D, Miyake H, Fujiwara S, Ono Y , T akahashi T , et al. Effect of bite-raised condition on the hippocampal cholinergic system of aged SAMP8 mice. Neurosci Lett. 2012; 520(1):77-;81. https:// PMID: 22640898
  21. Kojo A, Yamada K, Kubo KY, Yamashita A, Yamamoto T. Occlusal disharmony in mice transiently acti- vates microglia in hippocampal CA1 region but not in dentate gyrus. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010; 221 (3):237-;43. PMID: 20581431
  22. Mori D, Katayama T, Miyake H, Fujiwara S, Kubo KY. Occlusal disharmony leads to learning deficits associated with decreased cellular proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of SAMP8 mice. Neu- rosci Lett. 2013; 534:228-;32. PMID: 23262093



Strongly recommended course for XXXV/XXXVI/XXXVII Cycle Second-Year students

Last update: 16/11/2023 10:14
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