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Oral inflammation and the link with systemic diseases


Academic year 2022/2023

Prof. Mario Aimetti (Titolare del corso)
Degree course
Ciclo XXXV
Teaching period
Da definire
Course Seminario

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

people) suffer from its severe form. Periodontitis is the leading cause of tooth loss after the age of 65 y, with major negative consequences on masticatory function, esthetics, and overall quality of life.

Through the past decades, more than 60 different systemic conditions have been investigated in relation to periodontal diseases. Periodontitis has been implicated as a risk factor for several complex diseases, while a documented “bidirectional” relationship has been ascertained for others, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. While the onset of some systemic conditions could be promoted by a low-grade chronic inflammatory state and bacterial toxemia elicited by periodontitis; for other diseases, such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease, the association is based on shared inflammatory mechanisms and aberrant host immune responses to dysbiotic microbiota harbored in different body niches. Indeed, the role of the gut microbiome in driving chronic diseases through high nutrient intake, dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, and consequent metabolic inflammation/inflammaging has been strongly corroborated. Furthermore, oral Th17 cells that develop during chronic gingival inflammation can migrate to the gut mucosa, thereby contributing to colitis when triggered by oral pathobionts, which translocate to the bowel via enteric or hematogenous routes.


Results of learning outcomes

The aim of this course is to give to the students the most updated scientific evidence on the biological and epidemiological link between oral inflammation and systemic diseases. In particular the course will focused on periodontal disease, which is the sixth most prevalent uncommunicable disease worldwide.


Course delivery

Frontal lessons


Learning assessment methods

Multiple choice test



1) Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases: Cause, Consequence, or Manifestation of a Third Entity?

2) Bidirectional link between oral and systemic infection/inflammation

3) How restoring oral balance can be beneficial for systemic health

Suggested readings and bibliography


  • Periodontology 2000: Volume 89, Issue 1, pag. 1-230, June 2022.
  • Baima G, Romandini M, Citterio F, Romano F, Aimetti M. Periodontitis and Accelerated Biological Aging: A Geroscience Approach. J Dent Res. 2022 Feb;101(2):125-132. doi: 10.1177/00220345211037977.
  • Romandini M, Baima G, Antonoglou G, Bueno J, Figuero E, Sanz M. Periodontitis, Edentulism, and Risk of Mortality: A Systematic Review with Meta-analyses. J Dent Res. 2021 Jan;100(1):37-49. doi: 10.1177/0022034520952401.
  • Romano F, Perotto S, Mohamed SEO, Bernardi S, Giraudi M, Caropreso P, Mengozzi G, Baima G, Citterio F, Berta GN, Durazzo M, Gruden G, Aimetti M. Bidirectional Association between Metabolic Control in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis Inflammatory Burden: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Italian Population. J Clin Med. 2021 Apr 20;10(8):1787. doi: 10.3390/jcm10081787.



Strongly recommended course for XXXV/XXXVI/XXXVII Cycle Second-Year students

Last update: 16/11/2023 10:20
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